Absorbative 3

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Absorbative 3

Fasting is the willful refrainment from eating for a period of time. In a physiological context, fasting may refer to the metabolic status of a person who has not eaten overnight, or to the metabolic state achieved after complete digestion and absorption of a meal. Several metabolic adjustments occur during fasting. Some diagnostic tests are used to determine a fasting state.

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For example, a person is assumed to be fasting once 8—12 hours have elapsed since the last meal. Metabolic changes of the fasting state begin after absorption of a meal typically 3—5 hours after eating. A diagnostic fast refers to prolonged fasting from 1 to hours depending on age conducted under observation to facilitate the investigation of a health complication, usually hypoglycemia.

Many people may also fast as part of a medical procedure or a check-up, such as preceding a colonoscopy or surgery. Fasting may also be part of a religious ritual, often associated with specifically scheduled fast days, as determined by the religion. Fasting is always practiced prior to surgery or other procedures that require general anesthesia because of the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents after induction of anesthesia i.

In the case of a lipid panel, failure to fast for a full 12 hours including vitamins will guarantee an elevated triglyceride measurement. In one review, fasting improved alertnessmoodand subjective feelings of well-being, possibly improving overall symptoms of depression. Fasting for periods shorter than 24 hours intermittent fasting has been shown to be effective for weight loss in obese and healthy adults and to maintain lean body mass.

In rare occurrences, [9] fasting can lead to the potentially fatal refeeding syndrome upon reinstatement of food intake due to electrolyte imbalance.

Absorptive capacity

Fasting was historically studied on population under famine and hunger strikes, which led to the alternative name of "starvation diet", as a diet with 0 calories intake per day. It has been argued that fasting makes one more appreciative of food. Fasting is often used as a tool to make a political statement, to protestor to bring awareness to a cause.

A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt, or to achieve a goal such as a policy change.

What Is a Post-Absorptive State?

A spiritual fast incorporates personal spiritual beliefs with the desire to express personal principles, sometimes in the context of a social injustice. The political leader Mahatma Gandhi undertook several long fasts as political and social protests.

Gandhi's fasts had a significant impact on the British Raj and the Indian population generally. In Northern Ireland ina prisoner, Bobby Sandswas part of the Irish hunger strikeprotesting for better rights in prison. His funeral was attended bypeople and the strike ended only after nine other men died. In all, ten men survived without food for 46 to 73 days. According to an anonymous Uyghur local government employee quoted in a Radio Free Asia article, during Ramadan April 23 to May 23residents of Makit County MaigaitiKashgar PrefectureXinjiangChina were told they could face punishment for fasting including being sent to a re-education camp.

Fasting is practiced in various religions. Details of fasting practices differ. Eastern Orthodox Christians fast during specified fasting seasons of the year, which include not only the better-known Great Lentbut also fasts on every Wednesday and Friday except on special holidaystogether with extended fasting periods before Christmas the Nativity Fastafter Easter the Apostles Fast and in early August the Dormition Fast. Like Muslims, they refrain from all drinking and eating unless they are children or are physically unable to fast.

Fasting is also a feature of ascetic traditions in religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Mahayana traditions that follow the Brahma's Net Sutra may recommend that the laity fast "during the six days of fasting each month and the three months of fasting each year" [Brahma's Net Sutra, minor precept 30].WalfordLongman's Magazine… mycorrhizae increase the absorbative power of root systems … by 10 to 1, times.

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Join Our Free Trial Now! See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near absorbative absorb absorbance absorbate absorbative absorbed absorbency absorbent. Accessed 11 Oct. Comments on absorbative What made you want to look up absorbative?

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Learn More about absorbative. Time Traveler for absorbative The first known use of absorbative was in See more words from the same year. Dictionary Entries near absorbative absorb absorbance absorbate absorbative absorbed absorbency absorbent See More Nearby Entries.

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Test Your Vocabulary. Need even more definitions? The awkward case of 'his or her'.The act or process of absorbing or the condition of being absorbed. All rights reserved. Switch to new thesaurus. Based on WordNet 3. Having a capacity or tendency to absorb or soak up: absorbentassimilativebibulous.

Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? Pernia said LGUs must be able to improve their absorptive capacity in view of the Supreme Court's decision to grant the Mandanas petition. Neda: LGUs must improve absorptive capacity.

The Commission on Higher Education CHED maintained that the implementation of free higher education is on "track" - noting that "decisive actions" are already in place amid reports of alleged "underspending" and "low absorptive capacity" of the commission. Free higher education on track - CHED. For instance, Ho and Wang showed that alliances do not perform well when a firm's absorptive capacity cannot overcome challenge associated with knowledge protection from its partner, which is deterred from the institutional distance between partners.

Factors that shape the competitiveness of small innovative companies operating in international markets with a particular focus on business advice. One way to look at this question which is not only something that investors and aid agencies will look at but one that we should also ask us regularly, is to evaluate our absorptive capacity.

Absorptive capacity. This means that SMEs require greater absorptive and innovative capacities to cope with the complex Cohen and Levinthal, environment to come. I single out several likely economic risks at present: 1 inflation; 2 exchange rate changes; 3 interest rate changes; 4 the contractor choice; and 5 absorptive capacity. Economic risks of the Build Build Build program. As Fanon points out, "under-developed" nations, upon throwing off formal colonization, often try to develop their way out of this situation toward an absorptive capitalism, premised on the ceaseless gains in productivity that characterize "developed" nations.

Dictionary browser? Full browser?When the gastrointestinal tract is full, anabolism exceeds catabolism; this is the absorptive state. The baby who has finished nursing has a full tummy and now will probably fall asleep. During this sleep period, anabolic processes are busy building up stores of fats and glycogen that will be needed in the future to provide energy for the growing baby. Absorptive state is the period in which the gastrointestinal tract is full and the anabolic processes exceed catabolism.

The fuel used for this process is glucose. Simple sugars are sent to the liver where they are converted to glucose. The glucose then travels to the blood or is converted to glycogen and fat triglyceride for energy storage.

3.3: The Digestion and Absorption Process

The glycogen and fat will be stored in the liver and adipose tissue, respectively, as reserves for the post-absorptive state. The remaining glucose is taken in for use by body cells or stored in skeletal muscle as glycogen.

This main product of fat digestion is first broken down to fatty acids and glycerol through hydrolysis using lipoprotein lipase. This allows them to pass freely through capillary walls.

Most of this will be reconstituted as triglycerides and stored in adipose tissue. The rest will be used for energy in adipose cells, skeletal muscle and hepatocytes. In a low carb environment, other cells of the body will also begin to use triglycerides as energy sources. They may also be converted to fat for energy storage.

Some are used to make plasma proteins, but most leave through liver sinusoids to be used by body cells to construct proteins. Glucose Metabolism : Glucose metabolism and various forms of it in the process. Learning Objectives Differentiate among the nutrients in the absorptive state.

Key Points During the absorptive state, anabolic processes use glucose in a variety of ways. In the liver, glucose is converted to glycogen or fat, which store energy for future use. Fat is also stored in adipose tissue and glycogen in muscle tissue.

Glucose is also carried in the bloodstream to cells where it will be used to provide energy for cellular processes. Also during the absorptive state, chylomicrons, the product of fat digestion, are reconstituted to fat and stored in adipose tissue or, in a low carb environment, are used as an energy source.

The liver deaminates amino acids to keto acids which can be used in the krebs cycle to produce ATP, or can be converted to fat, or can be used by other body cells to create proteins. Key Terms absorptive state : The period during digestion when anabolism exceeds catabolism.

Carbohydrates Simple sugars are sent to the liver where they are converted to glucose.Digestion begins even before you put food into your mouth. When you feel hungry, your body sends a message to your brain that it is time to eat. Smelling food sends a message to your brain. Your brain then tells the mouth to get ready, and you start to salivate in preparation for a delicious meal.

Figure 2. Digestion converts the food we eat into smaller particles, which will be processed into energy or used as building blocks. Once you have eaten, your digestive system Figure 2. Another word for the breakdown of complex molecules into smaller, simpler molecules is "catabolism".

To do this, catabolism functions on two levels, mechanical and chemical. Once the smaller particles have been broken down, they will be absorbed into the blood and delivered to cells throughout the body for energy or for building blocks needed for cells to function. The digestive system is one of the eleven organ systems of the human body and it is composed of several hollow tube-shaped organs including the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine or colonrectum, and anus.

It is lined with mucosal tissue that secretes digestive juices which aid in the breakdown of food and mucus which facilitates the propulsion of food through the tract. Smooth muscle tissue surrounds the digestive tract and its contraction produces waves, known as peristalsisthat propel food down the tract. Nutrients as well as some non-nutrients are absorbed. Substances such as fiber get left behind and are appropriately excreted. There are four steps in the digestion process Figure 2.

The first step is ingestionwhich is the collection of food into the digestive tract. It may seem a simple process, but ingestion involves smelling food, thinking about food, and the involuntary release of saliva, in the mouth to prepare for food entry.

In the mouth, where the second step of digestion occurs, the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food begins.

The chemical breakdown of food involves enzymes, which break apart the components in food. In the mouth, the enzyme amylase is secreted to begin breaking down complex carbohydrate. Mechanical breakdown starts with mastication chewing in the mouth. Teeth crush and grind large food particles, while saliva initiates the chemical breakdown of food and enables its movement downward. The slippery mass of partially broken-down food is called bolus, which moves down the digestive tract as you swallow.

Swallowing may seem voluntary at first because it requires conscious effort to push the food with the tongue back toward the throat, but after this, swallowing proceeds involuntarily, meaning it cannot be stopped once it begins.

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As you swallow, the bolus is pushed from the mouth through the pharynx and into a muscular tube called the esophagus. As it travels through the pharynx, a small flap called the epiglottis closes, to prevent choking by keeping food from going into the trachea.

Peristaltic contractions in the esophagus propel the food down to the stomach. At the junction between the esophagus and stomach, there is a sphincter muscle that remains closed until the food bolus approaches.

absorbative 3

The pressure of the food bolus stimulates the lower esophageal sphincter to relax and open and food then moves from the esophagus into the stomach. The mechanical breakdown of food is accentuated by the muscular contractions of the stomach and small intestine that mash, mix, slosh, and propel food down the alimentary canal.

absorbative 3

Solid food takes between four and eight seconds to travel down the esophagus, and liquids take about one second. When food enters the stomach, a highly muscular organ, powerful peristaltic contractions help mash, pulverize, and churn food into chyme. Chyme is a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that also contains gastric juices secreted by cells in the stomach.You eat periodically throughout the day; however, your organs, especially the brain, need a continuous supply of glucose.

How does the body meet this constant demand for energy? Your body processes the food you eat both to use immediately and, importantly, to store as energy for later demands. If there were no method in place to store excess energy, you would need to eat constantly in order to meet energy demands. Distinct mechanisms are in place to facilitate energy storage, and to make stored energy available during times of fasting and starvation. The absorptive stateor the fed state, occurs after a meal when your body is digesting the food and absorbing the nutrients catabolism exceeds anabolism.

Digestion begins the moment you put food into your mouth, as the food is broken down into its constituent parts to be absorbed through the intestine. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, whereas the digestion of proteins and fats begins in the stomach and small intestine. The constituent parts of these carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are transported across the intestinal wall and enter the bloodstream sugars and amino acids or the lymphatic system fats.

From the intestines, these systems transport them to the liver, adipose tissue, or muscle cells that will process and use, or store, the energy. Depending on the amounts and types of nutrients ingested, the absorptive state can linger for up to 4 hours.

The ingestion of food and the rise of glucose concentrations in the bloodstream stimulate pancreatic beta cells to release insulin into the bloodstream, where it initiates the absorption of blood glucose by liver hepatocytes, and by adipose and muscle cells. Once inside these cells, glucose is immediately converted into glucosephosphate.

By doing this, a concentration gradient is established where glucose levels are higher in the blood than in the cells. This allows for glucose to continue moving from the blood to the cells where it is needed. Insulin also stimulates the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells where it can be used for later energy needs of the body.

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Insulin also promotes the synthesis of protein in muscle. As you will see, muscle protein can be catabolized and used as fuel in times of starvation.

If energy is exerted shortly after eating, the dietary fats and sugars that were just ingested will be processed and used immediately for energy. If not, the excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells, or as fat in adipose tissue; excess dietary fat is also stored as triglycerides in adipose tissues.


Figure 1 summarizes the metabolic processes occurring in the body during the absorptive state. Figure 1.

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Click to view a larger image. During the absorptive state, the body digests food and absorbs the nutrients.

The postabsorptive stateor the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. You commonly fast overnight, but skipping meals during the day puts your body in the postabsorptive state as well.

During this state, the body must rely initially on stored glycogen. Glucose levels in the blood begin to drop as it is absorbed and used by the cells.

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In response to the decrease in glucose, insulin levels also drop. Glycogen and triglyceride storage slows. In response to a drop in blood glucose concentration, the hormone glucagon is released from the alpha cells of the pancreas.

Glucagon acts upon the liver cells, where it inhibits the synthesis of glycogen and stimulates the breakdown of stored glycogen back into glucose. This glucose is released from the liver to be used by the peripheral tissues and the brain. As a result, blood glucose levels begin to rise. Gluconeogenesis will also begin in the liver to replace the glucose that has been used by the peripheral tissues.

After ingestion of food, fats and proteins are processed as described previously; however, the glucose processing changes a bit. The peripheral tissues preferentially absorb glucose. The liver, which normally absorbs and processes glucose, will not do so after a prolonged fast. The gluconeogenesis that has been ongoing in the liver will continue after fasting to replace the glycogen stores that were depleted in the liver.In business administrationabsorptive capacity has been defined as "a firm's ability to recognize the value of new information, assimilate it, and apply it to commercial ends".

It is studied on individual, group, firm, and national levels.

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Antecedents are prior-based knowledge knowledge stocks and knowledge flows and communication. Studies involve a firm's innovation performance, aspiration level, and organizational learning. It has been said that in order to be innovative an organization should develop its absorptive capacity.

The concept of absorptive capacity was first defined as a firm's "ability to recognize the value of new information, assimilate it, and apply it to commercial ends" by Cohen and Levinthal.

absorbative 3

The absorptive capacity is seen as cumulative, meaning that it is easier for a firm to invest on a constant basis in its absorptive capacity than investing punctually. Efforts put to develop absorptive capacity in one period will make it easier to accumulate it in the next one. The more a firm invests in research and development activities, the more it will be able to fully appreciate the value of new external information. They therefore encourage the hiring of diverse teams in order to have a variety of individuals working together and exposing themselves to different ways of looking at things.

This led to a review of the concept by Shaker Zahra and Gerry George [3] and a reformulation of the definition that expanded greatly the concept and further defined it as being made of two different absorptive capacities: potential absorptive capacity and realized absorptive capacity.

Zahra and George presented the potential absorptive capacity is made of two elements. Zahra and George go on to suggest a series of indicators that can be used to evaluate each element of absorptive capacity. George and his colleagues Zou, Ertug, George, [4] conduct a meta-analysis of absorptive capacity and they find that: 1 Absorptive capacity is a strong predictor of innovation and knowledge transfer, and its effects on financial performance are fully mediated by innovation and knowledge transfer; 2 The firm size-absorptive capacity relationship is positive for small firms but negative for larger firms.

The firm age-absorptive capacity relationship is negative for mature firms and not significant for young firms; 3 Social integration mechanisms, knowledge infrastructure, management support, and relational capability all have a positive and significant impact on the absorptive capacity-innovation relationship whereas they do not find the breadth of external search or competitive intensity to impact that relationship.

Environmental dynamism has a marginally significant negative impact on the absorptive capacity-innovation relationship; and 4 They also find that the absorptive capacity-innovation relationship is stronger when absorptive capacity is measured by surveys rather than when absorptive capacity is measured by archival proxies. A more recent contribution [5] proposed to a reintroduce the original first component in Cohen and Levinthal's model. The contribution noted b that transformation is not a step after assimilation, but represents an alternative process.

Consequently, it suggested that c the neat distinction between potential absorptive capacity and realized absorptive capacity does not hold any more. Managers have often problems in assessing the value of new external knowledge when it is not relevant for the current demands of key customers. When the new knowledge fits existing cognitive schemas well, it is assimilated. When the new knowledge cannot be assimilated, the cognitive structures must be transformed.

Firms transform their knowledge structures when knowledge cannot be assimilated. Transformation does not follow assimilation, it is an alternative to it.


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